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Tư duy bạn bè (Groupthink)
Tư duy tập thể trong giờ Anh là Groupthink.
Tư duy tập thể là một trong những hiện tượng xảy ra khi một tổ các cá nhân đạt được sự đồng thuận mà không tồn tại các bình luận gây tranh cãi xung đột hoặc reviews về hậu quả hoặc giải pháp thay thế. Tư duy tập thể dựa vào mong mong muốn chung là ko làm hòn đảo lộn sự thăng bằng của một nhóm. Mong muốn này tạo thành nghị lực trong một tổ và theo đó sự sáng tạo và tính cá thể có xu hướng bị giam giữ để kiêng sự xung đột.
Trong môi trường xung quanh kinh doanh, bốn duy tập thể hoàn toàn có thể khiến nhân viên và đo lường và tính toán viên quăng quật qua những vấn đề tàng ẩn trong câu hỏi theo đuổi tứ duy đồng thuận. Cũng chính vì suy nghĩ về phê phán cá thể không được nhấn mạnh hoặc không sử dụng rộng rãi nên các nhân viên hoàn toàn có thể tự kiểm điểm cùng không khuyến nghị các lựa chọn thay thế do thấp thỏm làm hòn đảo lộn hiện nay trạng.
Nội dung về tứ duy tập thể
Sơ lược về lịch sử của khái niệm tư duy tập thể
Nhà chổ chính giữa lí học xã hội Đại học tập Yale, Irving Janis, đã giới thiệu thuật ngữ tứ duy tập thể vào khoảng thời gian 1972. Janis chỉ dẫn giả thuyết rằng những nhóm bạn thông minh đôi khi đưa ra đưa ra quyết định được cho rằng tồi tệ duy nhất dựa trên một trong những yếu tố. Ví dụ, các thành viên của một đội nhóm đều rất có thể có nền tảng giống như có thể bóc tách họ khỏi ý kiến của các nhóm bên ngoài.
Một số tổ chức không tồn tại qui tắc ví dụ để đưa ra quyết định. Bốn duy tập thể xẩy ra khi một bên bỏ qua những lựa chọn hợp lí và chuyển ra ra quyết định phi lí.
Đặc điểm của tứ duy tập thể
Janis đã xác minh 08 dấu hiệu hay điểm lưu ý của tứ duy tập thể, toàn bộ đều dẫn mang lại các tóm lại thiếu sót. Cầm lại, nhóm rất có thể có một ảo tưởng về việc bất khả thất bại và nhận định rằng chẳng tất cả gì làm cho nhóm đưa ra quyết định sai.
Nhìn chung, nhóm phù hợp hóa mọi hiệu quả tiêu cực hoàn toàn có thể có. Các thành viên được thuyết phục tại sao của họ là đúng và thiết yếu đáng; cho nên vì thế họ quăng quật qua bất cứ cản trở đạo đức nào trong những quyết định của họ. Tổ chức nhóm có xu hướng bỏ qua các khuyến cáo của bất kể ai quanh đó nhóm.
Bất kì người nào chống đối vào nhóm đa số bị áp lực nặng nề phải đã đạt được sự đồng thuận. Sau khoản thời gian áp lực được đặt ra, các thành viên vẫn tự kiểm điểm để tránh bị những thành viên không giống xa lánh. Một khi các quyết định được đưa ra tức là tất cả những thành viên trong nhóm đông đảo nhất trí. Một vài thành viên của nhóm có thể hoạt động như một fan bảo vệ; những người dân này chống chặn bất cứ những chủ kiến đối lập đến các nhà chỉ đạo tổ chức.
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In tekkenbasara.mobi, teamwork và unity are good things, right?
Yes and no. Of course it’s good for employees to get along and to collaborate. But if that cooperation goes too far, it can lead to lớn a serious problem: groupthink.ga-analytics#send
Teams suffering from groupthink tend to make worse decisions & overlook potential pitfalls, which can have disastrous consequences for a tekkenbasara.mobi.
In this tutorial, you’ll learn what groupthink is and why it’s a problem in tekkenbasara.mobi. Then you’ll learn how lớn identify groupthink & how khổng lồ avoid it in your teams. We"ll also discuss some real-life groupthink examples.
1. What Is Groupthink?
To start off, let’s define groupthink. The term originated in psychology. It was coined by psychologist Irving Janis in a seminal 1971 paper on the role of group decision-making in historic U.S. Foreign policy blunders. He found that such decision-making wasn"t always effective, largely because people prioritized conformity over rational thinking. They thought not as individuals, but as a group.
Here’s a simple definition of groupthink from Psychology Today:“Groupthink occurs when a group of well-intentioned people make irrational or non-optimal decisions that are spurred by the urge khổng lồ conform or the discouragement of dissent.”
When a team is operating in groupthink mode, it"ll shut down debate or alternative viewpoints. It"ll be committed to a certain point of view và will dismiss warning signs or contradictory data. It may score highly for things lượt thích team spirit and group identity, which are usually positive things, but it"ll not be a healthy decision-making environment.
Groupthink can cause problems such as:bad decisionsexclusion of outsiders/dissenterslack of creativityblindness to potential problemsresistance lớn new ideasexcessive deference lớn authoritybelieving only the facts that tư vấn existing opinions
We’ll look at these issues in more detail, especially in a tekkenbasara.mobi context, in the next section.
2. Why Is Groupthink a Problem in tekkenbasara.mobi?
If you want to be successful in tekkenbasara.mobi, you need to make good decisions. Groupthink can prevent that by stifling debate.
For example, imagine that you’re launching a new company website. As the head of the firm, you’ve designed the site yourself, and all your employees tell you that it looks fantastic & praise your creativity. One person who’s new to the team raises some concerns, but they"re quickly shut down by the others.
So, excited about this new site, you go ahead & launch it, and guess what? Your customers hate it. There are obvious problems that nobody brought up, lượt thích a malfunctioning shopping cart & a lack of liên hệ details. Và the design looks so amateur that several popular sites feature it as an example of how not to thiết kế a website. The jokers on Twitter have a field day, and your company’s reputation takes a beating.
This scenario exemplifies many of the groupthink problems we looked at in the first section. Your employees showed excessive deference lớn you as the head of the company. They didn’t want to lớn offend you by telling you the website was terrible, or perhaps they were scared of what would happen if they were honest. They shut down the lone voice of dissent và were resistant to lớn any new ideas that the person was trying khổng lồ introduce. The result was that you were blind to lớn a huge looming problem (the bad website) and lost both money và reputation.
You can take steps khổng lồ prevent groupthink if you understand the question: how does groupthink work? to lớn illustrate these problems further, let’s look at a real-life example of groupthink in action.
A Groupthink Case Study: Enron
When energy giant Enron collapsed in 2001, many people were shocked—including people on its own board of directors, who should have seen the warning signs và anticipated what was coming.
Law professor Marleen A. O’Connor shows in a detailed study of the Enron debacle that groupthink was a key factor in the company’s downfall. For years, the company had been skirting its own ethics code and using transactions with so-called “related-party partnerships” to inflate its earnings by billions of dollars. Và the company’s board of directors, a group of experienced tekkenbasara.mobipeople who should"ve seen the warning signs, somehow didn’t realize what was happening until it was too late. In fact, they approved several waivers khổng lồ the company’s ethics code that allowed the crisis to lớn escalate.
Prof. O’Connor analyzes the board’s deliberations in her paper và concludes that groupthink psychology took hold. For years, the company was incredibly successful, và nobody wanted to jeopardize that by creating conflict & asking difficult questions—the questions that could have averted catastrophe.
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It wasn’t just the board that was at fault either. The paper also points to:“... Lack of diligence by other corporate gatekeepers such as analysts, auditors, outside counsel, institutional investors, credit rating agencies, journalists, investment bankers, và regulators.”
In other words, there were many people who could or should"ve spotted the problems at Enron sooner, but nobody did. Groupthink was a powerful factor in that collective blindness. Similar phenomena have occurred in the buildup to lớn various financial crises, with people conforming to the group narrative and creating speculative bubbles based on “irrational exuberance.”
There are also much older parallels, such as the folktale of the Emperor’s New Clothes, in which only a small boy has the honesty & courage to break the groupthink psychology and point out that the emperor’s clothes don’t exist.
3. How to lớn Identify Groupthink
So how bởi you recognize the symptoms of groupthink in your team? What causes groupthink, và how vì chưng you identify it? Here are some warning signs to watch out for.
We’ll look at the original eight symptoms of groupthink identified by psychologist Irving Janis in his 1971 paper. But whereas his paper was to vì with governmental decision-makers, we’ll look at these groupthink symptoms in a tekkenbasara.mobi context.
Illusion of Invulnerability
When groupthink takes hold, you think the normal rules don’t apply. Things that would be a bad idea for most companies (e.g. Suspending ethics rules) will work for you because your company is special. Or maybe you think the rules have changed because of the cool new công nghệ that you use, và the naysayers are old-economy dinosaurs who “just don’t get it.”
Because your group is invulnerable, any facts or data indicating that you’ve made a mistake must be wrong. If someone in the accounts department raises red flags about holes in the balance sheet, a team operating under groupthink will create collective rationalizations lớn explain it—that person made a mistake, or they"ve got an agenda khổng lồ undermine the group, or they’re maliciously spreading false information.
Belief in the Morality of the In-Group
In groupthink theory, morality is important. People generally don’t make bad decisions and suppress opposition because they’re evil or they"ve got bad intentions. On the contrary, in a groupthink scenario, they believe strongly that they"re good people doing the right thing. That sense of rightness helps them to lớn justify doing things lượt thích bending the rules or acting unethically. Essentially, they believe that the kết thúc justifies the means.
Negative Stereotypes of the Out-Group
In Janis’s original paper, the “out-group” referred to lớn the U.S.’s enemies at the time, like Cuba and the USSR. Viewing their enemies in simplistic, stereotypical ways helped to foster group identity và an “us vs. Them” mentality, but it also led to lớn ineffective decisions based on false assumptions. This can also apply in a tekkenbasara.mobi context—if you find people demonizing your competitors or even rival groups within your company, then groupthink may be taking hold.
Direct Pressure on Dissenters
A key element of groupthink theory is the suppression of dissent. The group is so committed to its own rightness và goodness that people who raise threatening questions are put under intense pressure to stop. In a tekkenbasara.mobi context, this can be very powerful—employees depend on their job to pay their bills and support their families, so if they get told lớn stop causing trouble, they’ll quickly learn lớn toe the line, & groupthink will take an even firmer hold.
In an environment in which alternative opinions are treated as “bad news” & the bringers of that news are punished, the next obvious stage is self-censorship. That’s what happened in our trang web example above. People knew from prior experience that criticism of the trang web wouldn"t be welcome, so they kept quiet.
Illusion of Unanimity
When people in the group are engaged in self-censorship, a false sense of unanimity develops. In the “Emperor’s New Clothes” tale, everyone is secretly thinking the emperor has no clothes. But because nobody says it out loud, there seems to be a unanimous opinion that the emperor’s clothes are fine & elegant. That puts even more pressure on people khổng lồ stay quiet to lớn avoid looking foolish.
Janis used the chilling term “mindguards” to lớn describe people within the group who take it upon themselves khổng lồ protect other members from threatening or contradictory information. For example, when presenting an update on company performance, a mindguard will remove any charts showing missed targets and leave in only the ones that surge impressively upwards. But the information on missed targets would probably have been more useful khổng lồ the team khổng lồ help them identify potential problems và find effective solutions.
4. How to Prevent Groupthink in Your Team
If some of the symptoms above sound familiar, then you may have a groupthink problem in your team. In this section, we’ll look at how to avoid groupthink, và how khổng lồ counteract it if it’s started to lớn take hold.
Assign a Devil’s Advocate
One of the simplest ways khổng lồ avoid groupthink is to lớn assign the role of “devil’s advocate” to a team thành viên in every meeting. That person’s role is to question the group’s consensus by coming up with as many objections và counter-arguments as they can think of.
Because the person has been specifically told lớn play this role, they won’t feel inhibited about voicing criticisms. Some of the points they raise may force the group lớn change its view or at least lớn think more carefully about it.
Have the Leader Speak Last
Often, in groupthink situations, team members rush lớn agree with the group’s leader or its dominant members. If this is happening in your group, consider asking those dominant people khổng lồ keep quiet until others have had their say.
For example, if you’re holding a meeting to decide between two new biệu tượng công ty designs, the usual groupthink model may be that you express a liking for biệu tượng công ty A and then everyone else agrees with you. So if you want a more genuine discussion, don’t express your opinion immediately. Introduce the two options without judgment, và ask some of the quieter or more junior members of the team to give their feedback first.
Having outside experts at your meetings can help lớn break up the group mentality & introduce other opinions và perspectives. If the outsiders are respected experts in the field, group members aren’t so likely to challenge them, và they may even hold a more xuất hiện debate than usual because they want to make a good impression on the outsiders.
Once groupthink has taken hold, it can be difficult khổng lồ get rid of it. One thing you can do is make public statements of appreciation for people who bring what may be considered “bad news.”
For example, if someone tells you that your team"s new product has a major flaw that"ll delay the launch, publicly thank them for bringing that news to lớn light before the flawed sản phẩm went public. By doing this, you"re signaling to everyone in the team that you won’t “shoot the messenger,” and you"re encouraging people to lớn be honest about important issues even if they threaten the group consensus.
Have Greater Diversity
Diversity can be a powerful antidote khổng lồ groupthink. When people are all from similar backgrounds & have similar experiences & expectations, it’s more likely for groupthink to lớn take hold. As we’ve discovered throughout our series on workplace diversity, bringing in people with different experiences và perspectives can shake things up & lead lớn better outcomes.
For example, as we discovered in the article on the key advantages of promoting diversity in your tekkenbasara.mobi, research has found that diverse groups make better decisions:"The mere presence of diversity in a group creates awkwardness, and the need to diffuse this tension leads lớn better group problem solving.”
What this means is that you can help khổng lồ avoid groupthink by creating more diverse teams. You can embed diversity considerations in your hiring practices, and you can also make a conscious effort to mix up the groups within the company so that each individual team has more diversity.
To learn more, read the following tutorials:
You"ve just discovered the answer lớn the question: what is groupthink? We"ve also explored some real-life groupthink examples.
As we’ve seen, groupthink can be disastrous for your tekkenbasara.mobi. It can lead lớn poor decision-making & a lack of honest debate và dialog. Even if your tekkenbasara.mobi doesn’t collapse as spectacularly as Enron, groupthink can cause real, tangible problems such as lost revenue, alienated customers, và poorly designed products. Và it can create a toxic working environment for your employees, which means lower productivity & higher staff turnover.
But fortunately, there are things you can do. We also looked at how to lớn avoid groupthink by using several strategies such as assigning someone in the group to play devil’s advocate, having the leader speak last, và increasing the diversity in your teams.
If you found this article useful, why not try reading some of our other management tutorials?
Editorial Note: This nội dung was originally published in 2018. We"re sharing it again because our editors have determined that this information is still accurate & relevant.
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