Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking” as it is more commonly known, is just one small method of the broader process of unconventional development of oil and natural gas. Fracking is a proven drilling technology used for extracting oil, natural gas, geothermal energy, or water from deep underground. Fracking has been safely used in the United States since 1947. More than 1.7 million U.S. wells have sầu been completed using the fracking process, producing more than seven billion barrels of oil và 600 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.
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Put simply, hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting liquid và materials at high pressure lớn create small fractures within tight shale formations to lớn stimulate the production and safely extract energy from an underground well after the drilling has ended & the rig và derrick are removed from the site. The process takes about three to lớn five days, on average, lớn complete from start to lớn finish. Once the fracturing operation is finished, the well is considered “completed” và is now ready to lớn safely produce American oil or natural gas for years, even decades, lớn come.
Fracking is a uniquely American success story that has provided immense benefits around the nation. By safely unlocking America’s abundant natural resources, fracking has created millions of American jobs, reduced energy prices, brought cleaner air by significantly reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to lớn 25-year-lows, strengthened our national security, và transformed the United States into a global energy superpower.
How has fracking impacted U.S. oil và natural gas production?
In roughly a decade’s time, advances in fracking công nghệ have sầu reversed the United States’ trajectory from that of energy scarcity lớn being “the undisputed leader of oil và gas production worldwide,” according to International Energy Agency Executive Director Fatih Birol.
From 2007 to lớn 2016, annual U.S. oil production increased 75 percent, while natural gas production increased 39 percent, thanks lớn the advancements in horizontal drilling and fracking giải pháp công nghệ.
How many American jobs has fracking created?
Millions. A năm ngoái Harvard Business School/Boston Consulting Group analysis estimates that shale development created roughly 2.7 million U.S. jobs in the first decade of the shale revolution. A 2013 study, commissioned by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, projected fracking will create a total of 3.5 million U.S. jobs by 2035. A separate 2017 American Petroleum Institute (API) report found that the oil & natural gas industry supports 10.3 million jobs in the U.S. — a 500,000 increase since 2011 — và projects the industry will support an additional 1.9 million jobs by 2035.
Is fracking a threat lớn public health?
No. In fact, there is ample evidence that increased natural gas use — made possible by fracking — has improved public health by dramatically improving air chất lượng in recent years. This is not to lớn say there are no risks, but the full body toàn thân of research on this issue shows that those risks are manageable.
Several state departments of environmental protection have sầu also installed air monitors at well sites and found that emissions during oil và natural gas development vày not exceed public health thresholds. For example, the Colorado Department of Public Health và the Environment released a 2017 report that found a “low risk of harmful health effects from combined exposure lớn all substances during oil and gas development.” In contrast, many of the most headline-grabbing studies linking fracking to lớn health issues have been plagued by questionable methodologies và contradictory results. Visit EIDHealth.org for more information.
Does fracking threaten groundwater?
No. And you don’t have sầu khổng lồ take our word for it. No fewer than two dozen scientific studies have concluded that fracking does not pose a major threat lớn groundwater. Most notably, a landmark năm nhâm thìn U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study concluded that, “
Does fracking cause earthquakes?
Very rarely. Although induced seismithành phố (particularly in Oklahoma) has made headlines in recent years, earthquakes attributable to lớn the actual fracking process are exceedingly rare & generally below the magnitude that people can actually feel. Induced earthquakes are more commonly linked to lớn wastewater injection — a completely separate process from fracking.
The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a useful myths & misconceptions page regarding induced seismithành phố. According to lớn the USGS: “Fracking is NOT causing most of the induced earthquakes.” The USGS also notes: “Wastewater disposal is the primary cause of the recent increase in earthquakes in the central United States.”
The Obama administration’s Bureau of L& Management (BLM) released on March trăng tròn, 2015 its final rule regulating hydraulic fracturing activities on federal and Indian lands. As it was written, this precedent-setting regulation would be difficult và costly for small- và medium-sized businesses lớn comply with & would likely discourage U.S. investment and job creation in the West. tekkenbasara.mobi and Western Energy Alliance immediately challenged the BLM hydraulic fracturing rule in the U.S. District Court of Wyoming, characterizing the federal government’s rulemaking as unsubstantiated & duplicative of states’ efforts to lớn effectively regulate hydraulic fracturing operations. Soon after, the states of Colorabởi vì, Wyoming, North Dakota, and Utah, và the Ute Indian Tribe joined the legal challenge. States have successfully regulated more than 1.2 million hydraulic fracturing operations for 70 years and many states have sầu recently strengthened their regulations as production has increased & giải pháp công nghệ has improved. The 2015 nationwide fracking rule is unnecessary và would add another layer of burden for America’s independent oil và natural gas producers already struggling to lớn navigate the complex & confusing regulatory program governing federal lands.
On September 30, năm ngoái, a judge for the U.S. District Court of Wyoming granted tekkenbasara.mobi và Western Energy Alliance’s motion for a preliminary injunction of the rule, stating, “Congress has not authorized or delegated to lớn the BLM authority to regulate hydraulic fracturing và, under our constitutional structure, it is only through Congressional action that the BLM can acquire this authority.” On June 21, 2016, shortly after the preliminary injunction appeal case was fully briefed, the District Court judge struck down the BLM final rule. The judge agreed with industry that BLM does not have sầu the congressional authority to regulate hydraulic fracturing on federal lands.
As expected, the Obama administration & environmental parties on June 30, năm nhâm thìn filed an appeal to lớn the District Court’s ruling with the U.S. Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. In September 2017, the Tenth Circuit Court dismissed the case, protecting producers from the business uncertainty of having to lớn potentially comply with a regulation that is certain lớn be rewritten by the Trump administration. On December 29, 2017, President Trump’s BLM published a repeal of the Obama-era hydraulic fracturing rule, which took immediate effect and ended the Tenth Circuit Court appellate case. On January 28, 2018, the state of California as well as the Sierra Club sued the BLM over the repeal of the năm ngoái rule in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. tekkenbasara.mobi và Western Energy Alliance have sầu filed for intervention on behalf of the federal government as well as filed a motion for venue transfer baông xã lớn Wyoming.
Read the Frequently Asked Questions on the 2015 BLM hydraulic fracturing rule.
More than 25 scientific, peer-reviewed studies and expert assessments have concluded that hydraulic fracturing is not a major threat to lớn groundwater. In fact, many studies have examined groundwater pollution và specifically ruled out fracking as the cause. View the link below to lớn learn more about each scientific study:“The most interesting thing we discovered was the groundwater chemistry in one of the areas most heavily developed for shale gas – an area with 1400 new gas wells – does not appear to be getting worse with time, and may even be getting better.”“We found no relationship between CH4 concentration or source in groundwater & proximity lớn active gas well sites.” (Abstract)“Direct migration of contaminants from targeted injection zones is highly unlikely khổng lồ lead to contamination of potential drinking water aquifers.” (p. 128)“In a study of 211 ground water contamination incidents in Texas associated with oil và gas activity (Kell, 2011) only 10 incidents were associated with well drilling và completion and none were associated with stimulation (hydraulic fracturing).” (p. 123)“UOG