Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking” as it is more commonly known, is just one small method of the broader process of unconventional development of oil and natural gas. Fracking is a proven drilling technology used for extracting oil, natural gas, geothermal energy, or water from deep underground. Fracking has been safely used in the United States since 1947. More than 1.7 million U.S. wells have sầu been completed using the fracking process, producing more than seven billion barrels of oil và 600 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

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Put simply, hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting liquid và materials at high pressure lớn create small fractures within tight shale formations to lớn stimulate the production and safely extract energy from an underground well after the drilling has ended & the rig và derrick are removed from the site. The process takes about three to lớn five days, on average, lớn complete from start to lớn finish. Once the fracturing operation is finished, the well is considered “completed” và is now ready to lớn safely produce American oil or natural gas for years, even decades, lớn come.

Fracking is a uniquely American success story that has provided immense benefits around the nation. By safely unlocking America’s abundant natural resources, fracking has created millions of American jobs, reduced energy prices, brought cleaner air by significantly reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to lớn 25-year-lows, strengthened our national security, và transformed the United States into a global energy superpower.


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How has fracking impacted U.S. oil và natural gas production?

In roughly a decade’s time, advances in fracking công nghệ have sầu reversed the United States’ trajectory from that of energy scarcity lớn being “the undisputed leader of oil và gas production worldwide,” according to International Energy Agency Executive Director Fatih Birol.

From 2007 to lớn 2016, annual U.S. oil production increased 75 percent, while natural gas production increased 39 percent, thanks lớn the advancements in horizontal drilling and fracking giải pháp công nghệ.


How many American jobs has fracking created?

Millions. A năm ngoái Harvard Business School/Boston Consulting Group analysis estimates that shale development created roughly 2.7 million U.S. jobs in the first decade of the shale revolution. A 2013 study, commissioned by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, projected fracking will create a total of 3.5 million U.S. jobs by 2035. A separate 2017 American Petroleum Institute (API) report found that the oil & natural gas industry supports 10.3 million jobs in the U.S. — a 500,000 increase since 2011 — và projects the industry will support an additional 1.9 million jobs by 2035.


Is fracking a threat lớn public health?

No. In fact, there is ample evidence that increased natural gas use — made possible by fracking — has improved public health by dramatically improving air chất lượng in recent years. This is not to lớn say there are no risks, but the full body toàn thân of research on this issue shows that those risks are manageable.

Several state departments of environmental protection have sầu also installed air monitors at well sites and found that emissions during oil và natural gas development vày not exceed public health thresholds. For example, the Colorado Department of Public Health và the Environment released a 2017 report that found a “low risk of harmful health effects from combined exposure lớn all substances during oil and gas development.” In contrast, many of the most headline-grabbing studies linking fracking to lớn health issues have been plagued by questionable methodologies và contradictory results. Visit EIDHealth.org for more information.

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Does fracking threaten groundwater?

No. And you don’t have sầu khổng lồ take our word for it. No fewer than two dozen scientific studies have concluded that fracking does not pose a major threat lớn groundwater. Most notably, a landmark năm nhâm thìn U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study concluded that, “ydraulic fracturing operations are unlikely to lớn generate sufficient pressure to lớn drive fluids into shallow drinking water zones.” The EPA reached this conclusion even after expanding the definition of fracking to include a wide range of other oilfield activities, demonstrating the safety of the entire development process.


Does fracking cause earthquakes?

Very rarely. Although induced seismithành phố (particularly in Oklahoma) has made headlines in recent years, earthquakes attributable to lớn the actual fracking process are exceedingly rare & generally below the magnitude that people can actually feel. Induced earthquakes are more commonly linked to lớn wastewater injection — a completely separate process from fracking.

The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a useful myths & misconceptions page regarding induced seismithành phố. According to lớn the USGS: “Fracking is NOT causing most of the induced earthquakes.” The USGS also notes: “Wastewater disposal is the primary cause of the recent increase in earthquakes in the central United States.”


The Obama administration’s Bureau of L& Management (BLM) released on March trăng tròn, 2015 its final rule regulating hydraulic fracturing activities on federal and Indian lands. As it was written, this precedent-setting regulation would be difficult và costly for small- và medium-sized businesses lớn comply with & would likely discourage U.S. investment and job creation in the West. tekkenbasara.mobi and Western Energy Alliance immediately challenged the BLM hydraulic fracturing rule in the U.S. District Court of Wyoming, characterizing the federal government’s rulemaking as unsubstantiated & duplicative of states’ efforts to lớn effectively regulate hydraulic fracturing operations. Soon after, the states of Colorabởi vì, Wyoming, North Dakota, and Utah, và the Ute Indian Tribe joined the legal challenge. States have successfully regulated more than 1.2 million hydraulic fracturing operations for 70 years and many states have sầu recently strengthened their regulations as production has increased & giải pháp công nghệ has improved. The 2015 nationwide fracking rule is unnecessary và would add another layer of burden for America’s independent oil và natural gas producers already struggling to lớn navigate the complex & confusing regulatory program governing federal lands.


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On September 30, năm ngoái, a judge for the U.S. District Court of Wyoming granted tekkenbasara.mobi và Western Energy Alliance’s motion for a preliminary injunction of the rule, stating, “Congress has not authorized or delegated to lớn the BLM authority to regulate hydraulic fracturing và, under our constitutional structure, it is only through Congressional action that the BLM can acquire this authority.” On June 21, 2016, shortly after the preliminary injunction appeal case was fully briefed, the District Court judge struck down the BLM final rule. The judge agreed with industry that BLM does not have sầu the congressional authority to regulate hydraulic fracturing on federal lands.

As expected, the Obama administration & environmental parties on June 30, năm nhâm thìn filed an appeal to lớn the District Court’s ruling with the U.S. Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. In September 2017, the Tenth Circuit Court dismissed the case, protecting producers from the business uncertainty of having to lớn potentially comply with a regulation that is certain lớn be rewritten by the Trump administration. On December 29, 2017, President Trump’s BLM published a repeal of the Obama-era hydraulic fracturing rule, which took immediate effect and ended the Tenth Circuit Court appellate case. On January 28, 2018, the state of California as well as the Sierra Club sued the BLM over the repeal of the năm ngoái rule in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. tekkenbasara.mobi và Western Energy Alliance have sầu filed for intervention on behalf of the federal government as well as filed a motion for venue transfer baông xã lớn Wyoming.

Read the Frequently Asked Questions on the 2015 BLM hydraulic fracturing rule.


More than 25 scientific, peer-reviewed studies and expert assessments have concluded that hydraulic fracturing is not a major threat to lớn groundwater. In fact, many studies have examined groundwater pollution và specifically ruled out fracking as the cause. View the link below to lớn learn more about each scientific study:

“The most interesting thing we discovered was the groundwater chemistry in one of the areas most heavily developed for shale gas – an area with 1400 new gas wells – does not appear to be getting worse with time, and may even be getting better.”“We found no relationship between CH4 concentration or source in groundwater & proximity lớn active gas well sites.” (Abstract)“Direct migration of contaminants from targeted injection zones is highly unlikely khổng lồ lead to contamination of potential drinking water aquifers.” (p. 128)“In a study of 211 ground water contamination incidents in Texas associated with oil và gas activity (Kell, 2011) only 10 incidents were associated with well drilling và completion and none were associated with stimulation (hydraulic fracturing).” (p. 123)“UOG operations did not contribute substantial amounts of methane or benzene to the sample drinking-water wells.” (p. 6)“We found no positive sầu relationship between CH4 concentration in groundwater and proximity to lớn active sầu gas well sites, & we found no significant change in CH4 concentration, isotopic composition of CH4, pH, or conductivity in water wells during the study period.” (Study abstract)“All elements of the study point to lớn natural methane contamination in the Parker-Hood cluster.” (p. vii)“Overall the source of the dissolved methane is likely natural sourced from shallow natural gas accumulations in the Barnett Shale, lignite beds associated with a fault in the Haynesville shale, and lignite and degradation of oil & deep organic matter associated with a fractured zone in the Eagle Ford Shale. The Delaware Basin samples show no dissolved methane other than associated lớn a recent blowout.” (p. iii)“Without a proper understanding of preexisting methane occurrence in groundwater, investigations may incorrectly conclude that unconventional hydrocarbon development và production has altered shallow groundwater quality when it has not (i.e. a false positive).” (p. 2)“To date, the Commission’s monitoring programs have sầu not detected discernible impacts on the quality of the Basin’s water resources as a result of natural gas development, but continued vigilance is warranted.” (p. 8)“There was no evidence of association with deeper brines or long-range migration of these compounds lớn the shallow aquifers. Encouragingly, drinking water sources affected by disclosed surface spills could be targeted for treatment & monitoring to protect public health.” (p. 5)“We have sầu found no evidence for direct communication with shallow drinking water wells due to upward migration from shale horizons. This result is encouraging, because it implies there is some degree of temporal và spatial separation between injected fluids và drinking water supply.” (p. 5)ydraulic fracturing activities have not led lớn widespread, systematic impacts lớn drinking water resources.”xperts & government regulators have sầu repeatedly acknowledged a lack of evidence linking the hydraulic fracturing process khổng lồ groundwater contamination.” (p. 26)“We see no broad changes in variability of chemical quality in this large dataset to lớn suggest any unusual salinization caused by possible release of produced waters from oil and gas operations, even after thousands of gas wells have been drilled among mỏi tens of thousands of domestic wells within the two areas studied.” (Executive sầu Summary)“We found no documented instances of hydraulic fracturing or acid stimulations directly causing groundwater contamination in California.” (p. 52)“The study found no releases of hazardous hydraulic fracturing chemicals lớn surface waters in California and no direct impacts to lớn fish or wildlife.” (p. 35)“Current findings are: 1) no evidence of gas migration from the Marcellus Shale; và 2) no evidence of brine migration from the Marcellus Shale.” (p. 2)“Conclusions of this study are: 1) the impact of hydraulic fracturing on the rochồng mass did not extover to lớn the Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian gas field; và 2) there has been no detectable migration of gas or aqueous fluids to lớn the Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian gas field during the monitored period after hydraulic fracturing.” (p. 2)“The comparison of groundwater data from this study with historical data found no significant difference for any of the constituents examined & therefore warrant no further discussion.” (p. 47)“Although preproduction water-unique data were lacking for the wells sampled for this study, geochemical data presented a well-defined pattern of geochemical evolution based on natural rock-water and microbially mediated processes, strongly suggesting that the resulting water chất lượng is derived from these natural processes with no effects from gas-production activities.” (p. 28)“Overall, there is no scientific basis for significant upward migration of HF fluid or brine from formations in sedimentary basins. Even if upward migration from a target formation to potable aquifer were hypothetically possible, the rate of migration would be extremely slow and the resulting dilution of the fluids would be very large…Given the overall implausibility và very high dilution factor, this exposure pathway does not pose a threat to lớn drinking water resources.” (p. ES-4)“The often-postulated percolation upward of fracking water used in deep, long lateral well extensions lớn contaminate drinking water aquifers near the surface through the intervening impermeable roông xã formations is highly unlikely và has never reliably been shown to have sầu occurred.” (p. 13)hese findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction.” (Study abstract)“Our evaluation of 1701 groundwater unique analyses shows that methane is comtháng in Susquehanmãng cầu county water wells và is best correlated with topography & groundwater geochemistry, rather than shale-gas extraction activities.” (p. 15)“Routine tests by the water purveyor show the community’s water supply meets drinking water standards, including the period of high-rate gravel packs and conventional hydraulic fracturing, as well as the first high-volume hydraulic fracture in September 2011… Before-and-after monitoring of groundwater chất lượng in monitor wells did not show impacts from high-volume hydraulic fracturing và high-rate gravel packing.” (p. 3)egulatory officials we met with from eight states – Arkansas, Colorabởi, Louisiamãng cầu, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, & Texas – told us that, based on state investigations, the hydraulic fracturing process has not been identified as a cause of groundwater contamination within their states.” (p. 49)“Neither state has documented a single occurrence of groundwater pollution during the site preparation or well stimulation phase of operations.” (p. 3)“In recent years, the national debate on natural gas E&Phường has been focused nearly exclusively on a single, brief, yet essential activity, hydraulic fracturing. Neither state has identified hydraulic fracturing as the cause of a single documented groundwater contamination incident.” (p. 102)“In this study, statistical analyses of post-drilling versus pre-drilling water chemistry did not suggest major influences from gas well drilling or hydrofracturing (fracking) on nearby water wells, when considering changes in potential pollutants that are most prominent in drilling waste fluids.” (p. 4)“A supporting study for this dSGEIS concludes that it is highly unlikely that groundwater contamination would occur by fluids escaping from the wellbore for hydraulic fracturing. The 2009 dSGEIS further observes that regulatory officials from 15 states recently testified that groundwater contamination as a result of the hydraulic fracturing process in the tight formation itself has not occurred.” (p. 11)“The protection of freshwater aquifers from fracture fluids has been a primary objective sầu of oil và gas field regulation for many years. As indicated in Table 2.2, there is substantial vertical separation between the freshwater aquifers & the fracture zones in the major shale plays. The shallow layers are protected from injected fluid by a number of layers of casing and cement — and as a practical matter fracturing operations cannot proceed if these layers of protection are not fully functional. Good oil-field practice & existing legislation should be sufficient to manage this risk.” (p. 15)
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